GIT 笔记

Table of Contents


获得帮助

$ git help

# 获取指定命令的帮助
$ git help <command>

全局设置

$ git config --global user.name "saul"
$ git config --global user.email "saul@example.com"
$ git config --global color.ui true

基本操作

workflow:

	    +-----------+   +-----------+   +------------+   +------------+
	    |           |   |           |   |   Local    |   |   Remote   |
	    | Workspace |   |  Staging  |   | Repository |   | Repository |
	    +-----------+   +-----------+   +------------+   +------------+
		  |               |               |                 |
Initialize        |<--(1)-------------------------|                 |
		  |<--(2)-------------------------------------------|
		  |               |               |                 |
		  |               |               |                 |
    Update        |<--(3)-------------------------------------------|
		  |               |               |<--(4)-----------|
		  |               |               |                 |
		  |               |               |                 |
   Changes        |---------(5)-->|               |                 |
		  |               |---------(6)-->|                 |
		  |-------------------------(7)-->|                 |
		  |               |               |-----------(8)-->|
		  |               |               |                 |
		  |               |               |                 |
    Revert        |               |<--(9)---------|                 |
		  |<--(10)--------|               |                 |
		  |<--(11)------------------------|                 |
		  |               |               |                 |

Initialize

1. Local Repository -> Workspace

# 不指定 <directory> 时指当前目录
$ git init [<directory>]

2. Remote Repository -> Workspace

$ git clone <url of remote repository> [<directory>]

Update

3. Remote Repository -> Workspace

$ git pull

4. Remote Repository -> Local Repository

$ git fetch

Changes

5. Workspace -> Staging

$ git add <./dir/file>...

6. Staging -> Local Repository

$ git commit -m <message>

7. Workspace -> Local Repository

# 不会提交 untracked 文件
$ git commit -a -m <message>

# 跟上一次的提交合并, 覆盖 message, 同样不会提交 untracked 文件
$ git commit --amend -m <message>

8. Local Repository -> Remote Repository

$ git push [-u <name> <branch>]

Revert

9. Local Repository -> Staging

# 撤销上次提交, 将所有的改动放到 Staging
$ git reset --soft HEAD^

10. Staging -> Workspace

# 将文件状态从 Staging 移出, 不指定 <file> 时表示所有在 Staging 的文件
$ git reset HEAD [<file>...]

# 丢弃在 Workspace 中的文件改动
$ git checkout -- <file>...

11. Local Repository -> Workspace

# 撤销上次的提交以及所有的改动(慎用)
$ git reset --hard HEAD^

其他操作

Diff

# unstaged 与 last commit 比较
$ git diff [<file>]

# staged 与 last commit 比较
$ git diff --staged [<file>]

$ git diff HEAD
$ git diff HEAD^
$ git diff HEAD~5
$ git diff HEAD^..HEAD
$ git diff <long_hash>..<long_hash>
$ git diff <short_hash>..<short_hash>
$ git diff <branch1> <branch2>
$ git diff --since=1.week.ago --until=1.minute.ago

Log

$ git log
$ git log --pretty=oneline
$ git log --oneline
$ git log --oneline -p
$ git log --oneline --stat
$ git log --oneline --graph
$ git log --until=1.minute.ago
$ git log --since=1.day.ago
$ git log --since=1.hour.ago
$ git log --since=1.month.ago --until=2.weeks.ago
$ git log --since=2000-01-01 --until=2012-12-21

Branch

$ git branch               # 列出分支
$ git branch -r            # 列出远程分支
$ git branch <branch>      # 创建分支
$ git branch -d <branch>   # 删除分支
$ git push origin :cat     # 删除远程的分支

$ git checkout <branch>    # 切换分支
$ git checkout -b <branch> # 创建并切换分支

Tag

$ git tag                   # 列出标签
$ git checkout <tag>        # 切换标签
$ git tag -a <tag> -m <msg> # 新建标签
$ git push --tags           # push

参考

Author: Saul Lawliet

Created: 2019-03-21 Thu 16:45

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